Gender Differences in Determinants and Consequences of Health and Illness
Rest and recovery are essential for our health and well-being. Here’s why you should take small breaks throughout your day, longer breaks during the week, and full-on vacations.
Early research suggests that microbes in the digestive tract may be connected to this progressive disorder of the nervous system.
While some people are naturally more patient, some of us are more inclined to resort to clenching our fists, screaming and stomping off, or giving up altogether. And when the conditions are ripe for it, even the most patient among us can lose it. Still, experts say that it’s absolutely possible to learn to be more patient.
Social determinants of health (SDOH) are the conditions in the environments where people are born, live, learn, work, play, worship, and age that affect a wide range of health, functioning, and quality-of-life outcomes and risks.
No matter what your fitness level is today, you can strengthen your heart, improve your flexibility, and blast away fat from the comfort of your home with this Total Body Transformation workout from celebrated personal trainer Michelle Bridges.
Social determinants of health are the conditions in which people are born, grow, live, work, and age that shape health. This brief provides an overview of social determinants of health and emerging initiatives to address them.
An NCHHSTP White Paper on Social Determinants of Health, 2010
Anatomy is the science that studies the structure of the body. On this page, you'll find links to descriptions and pictures of the human body's parts and organ systems from head to toe.
Good health begins where we live, learn, work, and play. Stable housing, quality schools, access to good jobs, and neighborhood safety are all important influences, as is culturally competent healthcare. RWJF supports communities with the data, knowledge, and tools to expand their commitment to addressing the social determinants of health so that everyone can live the healthiest life possible.
What Are Social Determinants of Health? Social determinants of health (SDOH) are the nonmedical factors that influence health outcomes. They are the conditions in which people are born, grow, work, live, and age, and the wider set of forces and systems shaping the conditions of daily life. These forces and systems include economic policies and systems, development agendas, social norms, social policies, racism, climate change, and political systems.
Social determinants of health are the conditions in which people are born, grow, live, work and age that shape health. This brief provides an overview of social determinants of health and emerging initiatives to address them.
Health care systems and policymakers in the United States increasingly use language related to social determinants of health in their strategies to improve health and control costs. Still, the terms used often need to be understood, conflated, and confused. Greater clarity on key terms and the concepts underlying them could advance policies and practices related to social determinants of health—including by defining appropriate roles and limits of the healthcare sector in this multisector field.
Social determinants of health are factors in the environment where people are born, live, learn, work, play, worship, and age. While our overall health and well-being is affected by access to good health care (like going to the doctor’s office for an annual check-up), our health and well-being are also affected by our homes, our access to fresh fruits and vegetables, the quality of the air we breathe, our education systems, and by how safe we are in the communities in which we live. These things can add stresses or pressures to our schools, jobs, or neighborhoods. In fact, these factors can and often do impact our health and well-being more than access to good health care and the individual choices we make. They affect our functioning and our overall quality of life.
The purpose of this paper is to describe national and state policy initiatives over the last ten years in the US aimed to integrate health and social care for Americans with health insurance provided by the public Medicaid insurance program. We also contextualize the US experience in the broader international landscape using an integrated care framework. Policy reform in the US can inform and be informed by other countries to advance integrated health and social care globally.
Community Needs Assessment. Atlanta, GA: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), 2013
To conduct engaging workshops with emerging Independent Living leaders and youth with disabilities
Bias, stereotyping, prejudice, and clinical uncertainty on the part of healthcare providers may contribute to racial and ethnic disparities in healthcare
Although a more involved consensus process is advisable for developing a universally accepted definition, we expect that the development of our working definition will be a helpful initial step for others attempting standardization in this area.
This article will help better understand cultural competence and its components. Adopted cross-cultural attitude strategies will help to develop and enhance the ability to practice effective communication in intercultural situations.
Book: Pathophysiology of Disease: An Introduction to Clinical Medicine, 8e
Interpersonal skills, also known as people skills, soft skills, or emotional intelligence, are related to the way you communicate and interact with others. When employers are hiring, interpersonal skills are one of the top criteria used to evaluate candidates. They are also important skills that will help you promoted and be successful in the workplace.
The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, due to the novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has caused a worldwide sudden and substantial increase in hospitalizations for pneumonia with multiorgan disease. This review discusses current evidence regarding the pathophysiology, transmission, diagnosis, and management of COVID-19.
Children and youth with special health care needs (CYSHCN) have been defined as “those who have or are at increased risk for a chronic physical, developmental, behavioral, or emotional condition and who also require health and related services of a type or amount beyond that required by children generally.
Recent scientific advances have shown that antiretroviral therapy (ART) not only preserves the health, quality of life, and life expectancy of people living with HIV, but people living with HIV who take HIV medicine as prescribed and get and keep an undetectable viral load have effectively no risk of transmitting HIV to their HIV-negative sexual partners.
The creation of resources that are shared, accessible, and collectively owned and managed by communities has become a way for social entrepreneurs to contribute to community development.
Many feel that the U.S. is on the wrong track and the future is bleak. In a time of unprecedented division, rising inequality and intensifying climate change, it’s easy to feel that progress is impossible. In fact, models exist all around us for building safer and more equitable spaces where people can thrive.
Community health workers who help patients navigate the health care system and work to address their social and economic needs have rarely been fully integrated into care teams. This issue reports on health care organizations that have integrated community health workers into multidisciplinary teams, which appears to be a factor in their success.
The CHW’s Training Resource contains information and activities on heart disease and stroke and on the major risk factors for these diseases in adults. This information is presented in a format suited for direct training of CHWs. The Training Resource also includes handouts to be distributed both during training sessions and for CHWs to share with their communities. In addition, the appendices include a wealth of resources on heart disease and stroke to supplement the training sessions. The CHW’s Training Resource is unique because it covers, in plain language, lifestyle-related issues and risk factors for heart disease and stroke as well as clinical topics, such as stroke, heart attack, heart failure, atrial fibrillation, and diabetes.
This document provides guidance and resources for implementing recommendations to integrate community health workers (CHWs) into community-based efforts to prevent chronic disease.
Despite progress in documenting the outcomes of Community Health Worker interventions, the lack of standardized measures to assess CHW practice has made it difficult for programs to conduct reliable evaluations, and impossible to aggregate data across programs and regions, impeding commitment to sustainable, long-term financing of CHW programs.
Community health workers (CHWs) are expected to improve patient care and population health while reducing health care costs. Law is a tool states are using to build a supportive infrastructure for the CHW workforce. This study assessed the extent of existing state law pertaining to the CHW workforce aligned with best available evidence.
Geographic disparities in diabetes burden exist throughout the United States (US), with many risk factors for diabetes clustering at a community or neighborhood level. We hypothesized that the likelihood of new onset type 2 diabetes (T2D) would differ by community type in three large study samples covering the US.
Physical activity is key to improving the health of the nation. Based on the latest science, the Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans is a flagship resource for health professionals and policymakers that provides recommendations on how everyone can improve their health through regular physical activity. Learn ways to help people understand the benefits of physical activity and how to make it a part of their regular routine.
Drinking too much can harm your health. Excessive alcohol use leads to more than 140,000 deaths in the United States each year, shortening the lives of those who died by an average of 26 years. The economic costs of excessive alcohol consumption in 2010 were estimated at $249 billion, or $2.05 a drink.
A third of US adults report that they usually get less than the recommended amount of sleep. Not getting enough sleep is linked with many chronic diseases and conditions—such as type 2 diabetes, heart disease, obesity, and depression—that threaten our nation’s health. Not getting enough sleep can lead to motor vehicle crashes and mistakes at work, which cause a lot of injury and disability each year. Getting enough sleep is not a luxury—it is something people need for good health. Sleep disorders can also increase a person’s risk of health problems.
Experts say it’s not necessary. So why do so many women keep up this centuries-old practice?
Full field digital mammography (FFDM, also known simply as "digital mammography") is a mammography system where the x-ray film used in screen-film mammography is replaced by solid-state detectors, similar to those found in digital cameras, which convert x-rays into electrical signals.
Mammograms continue to be the best primary tool for breast cancer screening. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration, along with some FDA-approved state certifying agencies, certify facilities to perform mammography. The FDA also clears, approves, and authorizes new mammography devices for sale in the U.S.
CDC’s National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program (NBCCEDP) provides breast and cervical cancer screenings and diagnostic services to women who have low incomes and are uninsured or underinsured.
FDA-approved implants undergo extensive testing before approval to demonstrate reasonable assurance of safety and effectiveness. Still, there are risks associated with all breast implants.
Science suggests people who are more physically active tend to have healthier guts, which supports good immune health, digestion, and even mood.
The American Academy of Sleep Medicine recommends 9–12 hours of sleep for children aged 6–12 years and 8–10 hours for those aged 13–18 (1), yet only two-thirds of children meet these recommendations (2).
This booklet can help you keep your baby’s mouth healthy!
People with diabetes are at a higher risk of developing mental health conditions. The challenges of living with a chronic illness like diabetes can lead to feelings of stress, frustration, and burnout. Managing blood sugar levels can also be time-consuming and exhausting, leading to feelings of exhaustion. These emotional struggles can make it harder to stick to a diabetes management plan and lead to poorer health outcomes.
Pregnancy and childbirth commonly viewed as normal life events entail certain risks for both the mother and the baby. In 2020, the United States recorded 23.8 maternal deaths per 100,000 live births and approximately 20,000 infant deaths. The total fertility rate for the year was 1.64 children per woman.
Colorectal cancer, also called colon cancer or rectal cancer, is a type of cancer that usually begins as a growth on the lining of the colon or rectum called a polyp. Not all polyps turn into cancer, but some types are more likely to become cancerous than others.
Dementia refers to the impairment of cognitive functions such as thinking, remembering, and reasoning. This can significantly disrupt a person's daily activities and lifestyle. It may also cause emotional instability and personality changes in some individuals. The underlying cause of dementia is the modification of certain regions of the brain, which disrupts the proper functioning of nerve cells and their connections. Alzheimer's Disease is responsible for 60-80% of cases of dementia. In 2019, 5.8 million people in the United States suffered from Alzheimer's disease and related dementias. 5.6 million individuals were aged 65+ and 200,000 people were below age 65. Alzheimer's disease cases were projected to escalate to approximately 14 million by 2060, with minority populations being the most affected.
Stress is a natural response to challenging situations or a perceived threat. While a moderate level of stress can be beneficial, chronic, or severe stress can have negative effects on our health and well-being. Acute stress arises from a brief and specific event or situation while chronic or long-term stress is typically the result of persistent problems. Managing stress involves identifying the sources of stress in our lives, developing healthy coping mechanisms, and seeking professional help from a therapist or counselor if necessary.
Women’s health status is complex and can be viewed from various perspectives. These include physical health, mental health, and access to healthcare. Women in the United States have a higher life expectancy than men, but they still face several health challenges and disabilities.
Heat-related illnesses refer to a range of medical conditions that occur when the body is unable to effectively regulate its internal temperature in response to excessive heat exposure. These illnesses can occur due to prolonged exposure to high temperatures, especially in combination with high humidity levels, or engaging in strenuous physical activity in hot environments. Heat-related illnesses can vary in severity, ranging from mild conditions such as heat cramps and heat exhaustion to more severe and potentially life-threatening conditions like heatstroke. Annually, the United States experiences an average of 702 heat-related deaths, along with around 67,512 emergency department visits and approximately 9,235 hospitalizations due to heat-related conditions.
Understanding the risk factors, prevention strategies, and management approaches for chronic diseases is crucial for promoting better health outcomes.
Osteoporosis is a condition caused by a decrease in bone mineral density, bone mass, or a change in the structure and strength of bones. The disease is typically "silent," as symptoms are rare, and it often goes undetected until a bone fracture occurs. In the United States, around 54 million people are believed to have osteoporosis. While both men and women can develop osteoporosis, women are four times more likely to be affected.
Hypertension or High Blood Pressure (HBP) is a serious health concern often referred to as the "silent killer" because it usually does not cause noticeable symptoms until it has reached a severe stage. HBP may develop gradually over time. It can also be caused by underlying health conditions, such as kidney disease, hormonal disorders, or certain medications. Approximately 47% of adults in the United States experience hypertension.
Stroke is the fifth leading cause of death and the leading cause of long-term disability in the United States. This condition occurs when the blood supply to the brain is interrupted or reduced, leading to brain cell damage or death. Many survivors experience lasting physical, cognitive, or emotional impairments.
According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, approximately 1 in 13 individuals in the United States are affected by asthma. Asthma is a chronic condition that affects the airways in the lungs. These airways serve as tubes responsible for carrying air into and out of the lungs. When an individual has asthma, these airways can experience inflammation and constriction periodically. As a result, exhaling becomes more challenging due to the restricted airflow.
Many Americans, from diverse backgrounds, are living with viral hepatitis without being aware of it. As a result, they are at risk of developing serious complications and may also inadvertently pass on the virus to others.
Whether you’re working on forgiving yourself or others, forgiveness is imperative for mental and physical health.
A psychologist weighs in on why you feel like your watch is running at double speed, and how to slow it down.
Try these steps to help you handle tricky situations in healthy ways when out and about.
Loneliness tends to be more prevalent in certain groups, including younger people, older people, and those who have relocated to a new country.
"Online therapy" is a broad term used to describe traditional one-on-one therapy done via videoconferencing as well as newer therapy tools, such as apps.
Resilience is what helps us thrive despite the curveballs life throws our way. Some of us are born more resilient than others, but everyone can get better at it. Here’s how.
You’ve resolved to quit smoking or vaping, but now your gut protests with bloating, pent-up gas, and constipation. Here’s what helps.
You want to give your family the best that you can. Here are some tips to help you make healthier foods for your family
Be active with your family each day. Here are some tips to fit physical activity into a busy week—and make it fun!
Most packaged foods have a Nutrition Facts label. This tip sheet shows you how to use the label to make healthy food choices.
One of the key developmental tasks in adolescence is to develop a coherent identity. Studies have increasingly begun to go beyond the study of mean level identity change and examine the underlying mechanisms of identity development at the intraindividual, microlevel, that is, at the level where development is taking place: within the person, in here-and-now experiences and relationships. Identity development during adolescence is characterized by both systematic maturation and substantial stability. Life events and transitions, as well as accumulating real-time experiences, might play a role in identity development.
Suicide is a major public health concern. In 2020, suicide was the 12th leading cause of death overall in the United States, claiming the lives of over 45,900 people. Suicide is complicated and tragic, but it is often preventable. Knowing the warning signs for suicide and how to get help can help save lives.
These tools and resources help families and communities better understand physical activity and how it relates to maintaining a healthy weight.
The Benefits of Daily Cleaning Between Teeth
A traumatic event is a shocking, scary, or dangerous experience that can affect someone emotionally and physically. Experiences like natural disasters (such as hurricanes, earthquakes, and floods), acts of violence (such as assault, abuse, terrorist attacks, and mass shootings), as well as car crashes and other accidents can all be traumatic. Researchers are investigating the factors that help people cope or that increase their risk for other physical or mental health problems following a traumatic event.
For most adults, moderate alcohol use is probably not harmful. However, about 18 million adult Americans have an alcohol use disorder (AUD). This means that their drinking causes distress and harm. AUD can range from mild to severe, depending on the symptoms. Severe AUD is sometimes called alcoholism or alcohol dependence.
You know what’s in your mouth? It’s home to about 700 species of microbes. These include germs like bacteria, fungi, and more.
There is a commonly held misconception that eating disorders are a lifestyle choice. Eating disorders are actually serious and often fatal illnesses that are associated with severe disturbances in people’s eating behaviors and related thoughts and emotions. Preoccupation with food, body weight, and shape may also signal an eating disorder. Common eating disorders include anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and binge-eating disorder.
Resources to facilitate the replication or adaptation of successful interventions for engaging Black men who have sex with men (MSM) in HIV medical care, behavioral health care, and support services and improving their health outcomes are now available. Each of the interventions in the Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program Part F Special Projects of National Significance Black MSM Initiative developed implementation manuals, toolkits, and monographs that provide ideas for replication, lessons learned, and descriptions of key tools used to develop and implement the intervention that may be adapted or adopted by future programs.
Occasional anxiety is a normal part of life. Many people worry about things such as health, money, or family problems. But anxiety disorders involve more than temporary worry or fear. For people with an anxiety disorder, the anxiety does not go away and can get worse over time. The symptoms can interfere with daily activities such as job performance, schoolwork, and relationships.
Resilience is what helps us thrive despite the curveballs life throws our way. Some of us are born more resilient than others, but everyone can get better at it. Here’s how.
Teenagers have different nutritional needs than adults. From puberty through early adulthood, the body is in a stage of rapid growth. To support proper growth and development, teens need a steady supply of calories and nutrients daily. Less healthful dietary patterns established during adolescence can increase the risk of health complications later in life. However, following a nutritious diet that covers the body’s needs for macro- and micronutrients can be challenging for teens for many reasons, including food preferences and availability as well as social and parental influences.
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurological and developmental disorder that affects how people interact with others, communicate, learn, and behave. Although autism can be diagnosed at any age, it is described as a “developmental disorder” because symptoms generally appear in the first two years of life.
What is resilience, why is it so important, and how do you know if you’re resilient enough?
Here are some tips to help your children spend less time in front of a TV, computer, or video games—and more time being active.
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is marked by an ongoing pattern of inattention and/or hyperactivity-impulsivity that interferes with functioning or development.
We all have the ability to be resilient, but we need to know and grow the skills that boost that quality. The resilience and well-being expert Amit Sood, MD, explains which skills to focus on.
Defining an addiction is tricky, and knowing how to handle one is even harder.
Disruptive mood dysregulation disorder (DMDD) is a childhood condition of extreme irritability, anger, and frequent, intense temper outbursts. DMDD symptoms go beyond being a “moody” child—children with DMDD experience severe impairment that requires clinical attention.
Experiencing extreme hot flashes and other symptoms isn’t just uncomfortable, it’s also a warning sign.
Alcohol is the most widely misused substance among America's youth. Drinking by young people has big health and safety risks. It is dangerous because it causes many deaths and injuries, can lead to poor decisions about engaging in risky behavior, such as drinking and driving or unprotected sex, Increases the risk of physical and sexual assault, can lead to other problems, such as trouble in school, may interfere with brain development and increases the risk of alcohol problems later in life.
Adolescence is a time for young people to have a healthy start in life. The number of adolescents reporting poor mental health is increasing. Building strong bonds and connecting with youth can protect their mental health. Schools and parents can create these protective relationships with students and help them grow into healthy adults.
This review describes the impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on physical activity after the government-mandated school closure, activity restrictions, and interactions outside reduced. and their association with and psychological status of Japanese children and adolescents.
Some amount of anxiety in your life is normal, even healthy. But if that anxiety persists and interferes with your day, there are ways to cope. Are you unsure whether your anxiety is normal or if it has escalated to unhealthy levels? Knowing the difference between healthy anxiety and a clinical anxiety disorder can help you sort out what kind of professional help you might need and which coping strategies are most likely to bring relief.
Experiencing vasomotor symptoms at work can not only be a minor inconvenience, but also cause lost productivity and unplanned days off.
A new study looks at sleep quality, duration, obstructive sleep apnea, and other disorders in women.
Teenagers face a variety of stresses. For some, it is trying to balance a part-time job with mountains of homework. Others may have to help out at home or deal with bullying or peer pressure. Whatever the cause, starting down the road to adulthood has its own special challenges. You can help your teen by learning to recognize the signs of stress and teaching your child healthy ways to deal with it.
Researchers hope evidence will lead to more widespread use and improved insurance coverage for mindfulness therapy.
People from racial and ethnic minority groups are more likely to be hospitalized when they have the flu, according to an analysis from the Centers of Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Minority groups at higher risk of health complications include non-Hispanic Black, non-Hispanic American Indian or Alaska Native, and Hispanic or Latino.
The teenage years are a time of transition from childhood into adulthood. Teens often have a strong desire to be independent. So, they may struggle with still being dependent on their parents.
The Outreach Global Group team is highly certified/credentialed individuals dedicated to helping